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Ketamine abuse

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Int J Depress Anxiety A of individuals have abused this drug or have been instrumental in others using this drug as a "date-rape" drug.

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Ketamine abuse

When misused, it is often sourced via the illegal diversion of prescription products, but analogs may be found on the streets. Another frequent presentation in ketamine abusers is upper gastrointestinal symptoms [ 17 ].

The usual illicit ketamine abuse of ketamine ranges from 50 mg to mg [ 24 - 26 ]. Ketamine has also been known as a psychedelic club drug and a date-rape drug due to its ability to quickly numb and render an individual immobile.

The effects of abuse typically last 1 ketamine abuse 2 hours, but the users judgement, senses and coordination may be affected for up to 24 hours or longer. Keywords Ketamine, Anesthetic, Phencyclidine, Delirium, Hallucinations, Depression, Psychedelic, Addiction Addiction is defined as being a primary chronic disease of the brain reward, motivation, memory in this complex circuitry. ketaminne

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Serious debilitating urinary tract symptoms are also seen frequently in those individuals who abuse ketamine. Ketamine withdrawal symptoms are usually not as severe as some other drugs being that the symptoms are psychological.

If the ketamine user is mixing ketamine with other drugs or alcohol, a ketamine overdose may result with only a very small amount of ketamine [ 22 ]. Like all forms of addiction it is imperative that the substance-abusing individual seek professional counselling and treatment immediately in an attempt to break the powerful bonds of addiction. The individual who suffers from addiction does not have the ability to abstain from this harmful pursuit and, as a result, addiction can take control of one's life.

It has also been used for pain control in burn therapy, battlefield injuries, and in children who cannot use other anesthetics due to side effects or allergies. Ketamine brand name: Ketalar is a dissociative injected anesthetic blocks sensory perception that has been available by prescription in the U. It can be taken in pill form or smoked but, it is usually injected or snorted.

However, at higher doses it may also bind to the opioid mu and sigma receptors. Secondarily, the drug distributes into peripheral tissues with a slower elimination half-life of up to 3 hours, undergoes hepatic metabolism ketamine abuse is excreted in the urine.

How to spot a ketamine user

Ketamine is a drug which has been abused through the years by many individuals due to its psychological effects. In the U. Ketamine abuse abused, it is typically insufflated "snorted" up the nose in social situations. This agent is a lipid soluble compound, has an initial rapid distribution and large volume of distribution, with a half-life of 10 to 15 minutes. Oral consumption requires between 5 and 30 minutes. Acute toxic effects of ketamine abuse include tachycardia, cognitive dysfunction, abdominal pain, muscle rigidity, hypertension and raised intracranial pressure with death being the end result at times [ 2728 ].

A dysfunction in this complex circuitry can lead to certain manifestations in an individual [ 1 ]. It is also injected, consumed orally as a liquid, or smoked in marijuana or tobacco.

Addiction to ketamine

Abuse of ketamine can result in a of systemic manifestations including gastrointestinal issues, depression, and respiratory problems and amnesia. Why is Ketamine Used Medically? However, these symptoms are usually accompanied by strong cravings. Ketamine, through blocking at the N-methyl-D-aspartate NMDA site, has rapid action in ketamine abuse symptoms of depression and acute suicidal ideation. Ketamine may be administered orally, rectally, intranasally, IV, IM, or intrathecally ,etamine 8 ].

What is ketamine?

Ketamine can provide pain relief and short-term memory kstamine for example, amnesia of a medical procedure. Accidental overdose is fairly common as some users underestimate its potency. Ketaset is the brand name of a surgical anesthesia used by veterinarians Dissociative drugs can lead to distortion ketamine abuse sights, colors, sounds, self, and one's environment.

This in changes in synaptic and cellular plasticity via local glutamate non-NMDA-receptors [ 14 ].

Ketamine addiction and abuse

Cholestasis is a reduction or stop of bile flow from the liver to the duodenum. Glutamate is involved with learning, memory, emotion, kketamine pain recognition. It disrupts the neurotransmitter brain chemical glutamate. Ketamine abuse used as a recreational drug ketamine can produce delirium, a slowed perception of time and altered states of consciousness [ 4 ]. Unfortunately, it has also been used on unwitting victims as a "date-rape" drug.

Why is ketamine used medically?

Binge use, where the user indulges in the drug in excess kehamine in a short period of time has been reported, as well. Ketamine, an anesthetic which, has provided much needed relief of pain in medical surroundings, has been subject to abuse by individuals leading to their dependence ketamine abuse this drug.

Ketamine is used in the treatment of chronic and acute pain in adults and children [ 2 ]. Also, abusers often suffer secondary renal damage resulting in these individuals ketamine abuse dependent on dialysis [ 1516 ].